Bone And Joint Injury, FM 21-76

BONE AND JOINT INJURY

4-52. You could face bone and joint injuries that include fractures, dislocations, and sprains. Follow the steps explained below for each injury.

FRACTURES

4-53. There are basically two types of fractures: open and closed. With an open (or compound) fracture, the bone protrudes through the skin and complicates the actual fracture with an open wound. Any bone protruding from the wound should be cleaned with an antiseptic and kept moist. You should splint the injured area and continually monitor blood flow past the injury. Only reposition the break if there is no blood flow.

4-54. The closed fracture has no open wounds. Follow the guidelines for immobilization and splint the fracture.

4-55. The signs and symptoms of a fracture are pain, tenderness, discoloration, swelling deformity, loss of function, and grating (a sound or feeling that occurs when broken bone ends rub together).

4-56. The dangers with a fracture are the severing or the compression of a nerve or blood vessel at the site of fracture. For this reason minimum manipulation should be done, and only very cautiously. If you notice the area below the break becoming numb, swollen, cool to the touch, or turning pale, and the victim showing signs of shock, a major vessel may have been severed. You must control this internal bleeding. Reset the fracture and treat the victim for shock and replace lost fluids.

4-57. Often you must maintain traction during the splinting and healing process. You can effectively pull smaller bones such as the arm or lower leg by hand. You can create traction by wedging a hand or foot in the V-notch of a tree and pushing against the tree with the other extremity. You can then splint the break.

4-58. Very strong muscles hold a broken thighbone (femur) in place making it difficult to maintain traction during healing. You can make an improvised traction splint using natural material (Figure 4-6) as explained below.

Figure 4-6. Improvised Traction Splint

Figure 4-6. Improvised Traction Splint

  • Get two forked branches or saplings at least 5 centimeters (2 inches) in diameter. Measure one from the patient’s armpit to 20 to 30 centimeters (8 to 12 inches) past his unbroken leg. Measure the other from the groin to 20 to 30 centimeters (8 to 12 inches) past the unbroken leg. Ensure that both extend an equal distance beyond the end of the leg.
  • Pad the two splints. Notch the ends without forks and lash a 20- to 30-centimeter (8- to 12-inch) cross member made from a 5-centimeter (2-inch) diameter branch between them.
  • Using available material (vines, cloth, rawhide), tie the splint around the upper portion of the body and down the length of the broken leg. Follow the splinting guidelines.
  • With available material, fashion a wrap that will extend around the ankle, with the two free ends tied to the cross member.
  • Place a 10- by 2.5-centimeter (4- by 1-inch) stick in the middle of the free ends of the ankle wrap between the cross member and the foot. Using the stick, twist the material to make the traction easier.
  • Continue twisting until the broken leg is as long or slightly longer than the unbroken leg.
  • Lash the stick to maintain traction.

NOTE: Over time, you may lose traction because the material weakened. Check the traction periodically. If you must change or repair the splint, maintain the traction manually for a short time.

DISLOCATIONS

4-59. Dislocations are the separations of bone joints causing the bones to go out of proper alignment. These misalignments can be extremely painful and can cause an impairment of nerve or circulatory function below the area affected. You must place these joints back into alignment as quickly as possible.

4-60. Signs and symptoms of dislocations are joint pain, tenderness, swelling, discoloration, limited range of motion, and deformity of the joint. You treat dislocations by reduction, immobilization, and rehabilitation.

4-61. Reduction or “setting” is placing the bones back into their proper alignment. You can use several methods, but manual traction or the use of weights to pull the bones are the safest and easiest. Once performed, reduction decreases the victim’s pain and allows for normal function and circulation. Without an X ray, you can judge proper alignment by the look and feel of the joint and by comparing it to the joint on the opposite side.

4-62. Immobilization is nothing more than splinting the dislocation after reduction. You can use any field-expedient material for a splint or you can splint an extremity to the body. The basic guidelines for splinting are as follows:

  • Splint above and below the fracture site.
  • Pad splints to reduce discomfort.
  • Check circulation below the fracture after making each tie on the splint.

4-63 To rehabilitate the dislocation, remove the splints after 7 to 14 days. Gradually use the injured joint until fully healed.

SPRAINS

4-64. The accidental overstretching of a tendon or ligament causes sprains. The signs and symptoms are pain, swelling, tenderness, and discoloration (black and blue).

4-65. When treating sprains, you should follow the letters in RICE as defined below:

  • R-Rest injured area.
  • I-Ice for 24 to 48 hours.
  • C-Compression-wrap or splint to help stabilize. If possible, leave the boot on a sprained ankle unless circulation is compromised.
  • E-Elevate the affected area.

NOTE: Ice is preferred for a sprain but cold spring water may be more easily obtained in a survival situation.

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